From Farm to Fork: What makes our food Halal and Tayyib


27 Nov
27Nov

“Oh, you people, eat from the earth what is halal and tayyib, and follow not the footsteps of the Shaytan …”
(Surat al-Baqarah 2:168)

The translation of Halal is “permissible or lawful”. Halal is considered as a concept (Khattak et al, 2011) and a perception of behaviour to include what we wear, our speech, what we eat and how we treat others.

Tayyib translates to clean, pure, wholesome. As these terms Halal and Tayyib are combined in the Holy Quran  it is necessary to use the combined expression “Halala Tayyiba” when Halal food is presented (Alzeer et al, 2018).

 “ Eat of the clean and pure (Tayyib) and act righteously” (Holy Quran, Surah Al-Muminun ).

With regard to food, Halal and Tayyib represents a process through which the food passes through to achieve both objectives: Therefore, how Halal, which is a subject, is being processed, will determine if Halal is Tayyib or not. Chicken as a subject is Halal but how chicken is handled, treated, fed and slaughtered will determine if the chicken is Halala Tayyiba or not which is essential, but it can be accomplished if what we eat complies well with what we believe in terms of Islam.

 

Halal products and the conditions which make them Tayyib:

(Haram products and Khabith processing can be found at the bottom on this blog).


Animal Welfare and Law:

Behaviour and Welfare needs considered depending on species to include:

The Animal Welfare Act 2006, 5 Animal needs

The Welfare of Farmed Animals Act (England) 2007

WATOK Regulations England

All EU regulations regarding Animal Welfare, Slaughter and Food standards.

Appropriate handling and restraint of animals when needed

Hygienic living conditions, Biosecurity against diseases

Animal cruelty is a sin in Islam as prescribed in the below hadith, even though farm animals may be viewed as “just going for food” we should be arrogant and think we are a superior species for Allah will question us for the treatment of these animals entrusted to us.

“It is a great sin for man to imprison those animals which are in his power.” (Muslim)

“The worst of shepherds is the ungentle, who causes the beasts to crush or bruise one another.” (Muslim)

“Fear God in these mute animals and ride them when they are fit to be ridden and let them go free when … they [need to] rest.” (Abu Dawud)


Traceability:

Identification and recordkeeping All farm-bred and brought in large livestock must be permanently identified.

Horses (even pet ones) can be used for meat but they MUST have a passport by Law.

Poultry and other small livestock group identification is sufficient. All animals must be accompanied by a certificate stating their origin so that it is possible to trace animals back to the original farm and parents.

Stock management records must be kept, including veterinary treatment.


Breeding:

Cattle, Sheep and Goats

Adhere to breeding seasons, do not use light manipulation for unnatural breeding cycles to force supply for high demand

Breeding suited animals by size, age and genetics

Do not overbreed females which causes disease/ conditions and suffering

Producing animals with genetic manipulation or with the use of biotechnology is prohibited(this includes embryo transfer and sperm separation for sex determination).

Hormones can be used to synch oestrus cycles of females in the event of efficient farm management ONLY no other purpose such as growth promotion, the animals welfare must be considered.


Poultry

In-egg sexing is prohibited for chicks born on the farm.

However: For eggs within a hatchery setting

In-egg sexing should be discussed as a Tayyib process so that male chicks can be identified at egg stage and used in other products rather than being hatched and shredded or gassed because they cannot be used within the industry.This would prevent animal suffering.

(some male chicks are used for reptile feed)

Birth

Nutritional requirements must be monitored at all times through all stages of breeding and birth for males and females.

Monitor birth from a distance and respect the animals privacy and behaviour changes including housing and nutritional requirements

For Poultry suitable nesting boxes should be put in place to accommodate natural behaviour.

 

Housing 

Cattle, Sheep and  Goats

There must be sufficient space provided and the herd must be managed to allow the expression of social behaviour.

Outdoor space and Indoor shelter provided (Space requirements as per EU Organic guidelines).

Animals must be able to feed in an unhindered way; this means that there should be as many feeding stations as there are animals in the stable.

There must be as many sleeping stalls in the stable as there are animals and the sleeping stalls must have appropriate bedding. Fully slatted floors should may not be calculated as resting-place.

Access to fresh pasture during the summer half-year. Where this is not possible, access to the open air must be available all year round.

To tie up stock in housing all year round is not allowed.


Poultry


Housing and management must be designed to meet the natural requirements of the birds. This should include sufficient daylight, good climatic conditions in housing and low dust exposure.

Access to indoor and outdoor areas (Space requirements and stocking densities as per EU Organic guidelines).



Manipulation


Dehorning of animals, Tail docking, beak trimming, or any other form of manipulation is not permitted (only performed by a Vet if there is a valid health and welfare reason). These practices are banned under EU law.


Animal Feed

Livestock should be fed with organic feed that meets the animal's nutritional requirements at the various stages of its development.

Livestock shall have permanent access to pasture or roughage. Fresh or dried fodder or silage.

 Any feed materials used or processed in organic production shall not have been processed with the aid of chemically synthesised solvents.

Growth promoters and GMOs shall not be used.

All poultry must have access to insoluble grit

The keeping of livestock in conditions, or on a diet, which may encourage anaemia, is prohibited.

Force-feeding is forbidden


Transport to slaughter or other establishments

Transport time should be kept to a minimum in well ventilated and heat-controlled lorries.

(Legal transport requirements under UK/EU law, including Animal welfare requirements and paperwork can be found on UK GOV website).

Live export of Animals overseas is not a Tayyib practice.


Requirements of Halal slaughter 

When unloading and in waiting, Animals should be handled with care, given sufficient hygienic  space, appropriate temperature and ventilation where they are kept and water to drink.

FSA  and EU approved abbitor

Dhabiha requirements followed.

One animal should not see another being slaughtered.

Full tasmiyyah should be read to each animal, the cut must be done by hand immediately after.

(H.A.W.A does not agree with the use of stunning, however this a greatly debated area)

Facing the Kaaba

Clean very sharp blade for one cut through the Trachea, Oesophagus  and Jugular vein.

Muslim fully licenced slaughter man.

Vet to check the health of the animal. Animals sent for the consumer should be whole and healthy.

Not on production lines where haram meat is slaughtered.

UK GOV Halal slaughter guidance adhered to

Imam Ali said: “Do not slaughter sheep in the presence of other sheep, or any animal in the presence of other animals.”

‘Umar once saw a man denying a sheep, which was going to slaughter, a satiating measure of water to drink. He gave the man a beating with his lash and told him: ‘Go, water it properly at the time of its death, you knave!’.


Dressing/ Processing/ Packaging 

Not to be checked and sorted on production lines with Haraam products such as pork.

Cross contamination with haram products is prohibited.


Display/ Distribution to the Public 

Not to be displayed or cross contaminated with Haraam products i.e.. With pork in butchers shops.



What about other products which are Halal for us?

 

With regard to Fish, Dairy products and Vegetables, the closest standard to Tayyib in modern day farming is Organic produce which has high standards under EU regulations.


Below are other Halal and Tayyib processes which are not specific to the UK/ EU but may be in other parts of the world due to different food or living standards (taken from a science paper):



Halal subjects

Non-Tayyib process

Chicken, sheep, fish and cow meat


Duck liver

Intentionally fed with animal bones, or warms; produced on lines used for pork


Foie Gras – Force feeding of the animal.

Flavour

Processed with fermented ethanol

Water

Passed through filters derived from Pork fat

Fruits and Vegetables

Intentionally cultivated with fertilizer derived from pork, genetically modified or injected with oxytocin hormones

Caviar

Fish is fed with pork haemoglobin

Cheese

Enzyme used in the production of cheese is derived from non-Halal animals or microbes grown on non-Halal media



Products which are Haraam and processes which are Khabith:

 

Pork

Alcohol

Carrion

Predator Animals i.e. Birds of prey.



Sweets or deserts processed with Non-Halal animal derived Gelatine.

Foods or Drink processed with Alcohol/ wines.

“He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swine flesh, and that on which hath been invoked any other name besides Allah’s.” (Surah Al- Baqarah)

“Forbidden unto you (for food) are: carrion and blood and swine flesh, and that on which hath been invoked the name other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating…. (Surah Al- Mai’idah)

“O ye who believe! Intoxicants and games of chance, and idols and divining arrows are an abomination of Satan’s handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.” (Surah Al- Mai’idah)

Tayyib conditions for each individual animal go much further in-depth if you are rearing them as a farmer, this blog is simplified for the general public. Please email us if you would like further details or any material which was used/ referenced.

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